An infrared sensor emits the light to detect some surroundings. In the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiation that is invisible to our eyes, but an IR sensor can detect these radiations.
Here, IR LED is an emitter, and the IR photodiode is a detector. An IR LED emits the IR light, and the photodiode is sensitive to this IR light. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the output voltages and the resistances will change in proportion to the magnitude of the received IR light.
The Infrared detection system uses the five essential elements: an infrared source, a transmission medium, optical component, infrared detectors, and signal processing. An infrared transmission can be done through the vacuum, atmosphere, and optical fibres. To know more about the IR sensor, refer to the article, working principle of IR sensor.
L298N Motor Driver
L298N is one of the easiest and chipset way to control DC motors. It is the two-channel motor driver that can control the speed and spinning direction of DC motors.
This L298N Motor Driver is a high-power motor driver module. It is used for driving DC and Stepper Motors. This motor driver consists of an L298N motor driver IC and a 78M05 5V voltage regulator, resistors, capacitor, power LED, 5V jumper in an integrated circuit.
When the jumper is placed, it enables the 78M05 Voltage regulator. When the power supply is less than or equal to 12V, the voltage regulator will power on the internal circuitry. When the power supply is more than 12v, then the jumper should not place and should give a separate 5v to power the internal circuitry.
Here, ENA & ENB pins are speed control pins for Motor A, and Motor B. IN1& IN2 and IN3 & IN4 are direction control pins for Motor A and Motor B.