As the name suggests, the line follower robot is an automated vehicle that follows a visual line embedded on the surface.
As the name suggests, the line follower robot is an automated vehicle that follows a visual line embedded on the surface. This visual line is a path on which the line follower robot runs. Generally, it uses a black line on a white surface, or you can adjust it as a white line on a black surface.
Usually, beginners and students would get their first robotic experience with this type of robot. In this project-based article, we have informed about how to make a line follower robot using Arduino.
In industries, giant line follower robots are used for assisting the automated production process. They are also used in military applications, human assistance purposes, delivery services, etc.
Working of Line Follower Robot
The concept of the line follower robot is related to light. Here, we use the behaviour of light on the black and white surface. The white colour reflects all the light that falls on it, whereas the black colour absorbs the light.
In this line follower robot, we use IR transmitters and receivers (photodiodes). They are used to send and receive the lights. When IR rays fall on a white surface, it is reflected towards IR receiver, generating some voltage changes.
When IR rays fall on a black surface, it is absorbed by the black surface, and no rays are reflected; thus, the IR receiver doesn’t receive any rays.
In this project, when the IR sensor senses a white surface, an Arduino gets 1 ( HIGH ) as input, and when it senses a black line, an Arduino gets 0 ( LOW ) as input. Based on these inputs, an Arduino Uno provides the proper output to control the bot.
Arduino Uno is an 8-bit ATmega328P microcontroller. To support the microcontroller, it uses the components such as crystal oscillator, serial communication, voltage regulator, etc. It has 14 digital I/O pins( 6 pins can be used as PWM pins). It has six separate analog input pins, a USB connection, a Power barrel jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.
This board is programmable with the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) platform via a type B USB cable. This board can be powered by a USB cable or an external voltage between 7 to 20 volts. To know more about an Arduino Uno, refer to the article, what is Arduino Uno?