An infrared sensor emits the light to detect some surroundings. In the infrared spectrum, all the objects radiate some form of thermal radiation that is invisible to our eyes, but an IR sensor can detect these radiations.
Here, IR LED is an emitter, and the IR photodiode is a detector. An IR LED emits the IR light, and the photodiode is sensitive to this IR light. When IR light falls on the photodiode, the output voltages and the resistances will change in proportion to the magnitude of the received IR light.
The Infrared detection system uses the five essential elements: an infrared source, a transmission medium, optical component, infrared detectors, and signal processing. An infrared transmission can be done through the vacuum, atmosphere, and optical fibres.
L298N Motor Driver
L298N is one of the easiest and chipset way to control DC motors. It is the two-channel motor driver that can control the speed and spinning direction of DC motors.
This L298N Motor Driver is a high-power motor driver module. It is used for driving DC and Stepper Motors. This motor driver consists of an L298N motor driver IC and a 78M05 5V voltage regulator, resistors, capacitor, power LED, 5V jumper in an integrated circuit.
When the jumper is placed, it enables the 78M05 Voltage regulator. When the power supply is less than or equal to 12V, the voltage regulator will power on the internal circuitry. When the power supply is more than 12v, then the jumper should not place and should give a separate 5v to power the internal circuitry.
Here, ENA & ENB pins are speed control pins for Motor A, and Motor B. IN1& IN2 and IN3 & IN4 are direction control pins for Motor A and Motor B.
BO Motor is known as Battery Operated motor. These motors are commonly used in hobby-grade projects where the user requires a small DC motor as a simple actuator.
BO series linear motor provides good torque and rpm at lower operating voltages. The BO motors are available in single Shaft, Dual Shaft, and DC Plastic Gear BO. These motors consume low current. In this project, we have used four single shaft BO motors.
A lithium-ion battery is a rechargeable battery. It is commonly used in portable devices such as mobiles, laptops, electronics, and electric vehicles. Also, they are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.
Here, we have used four BO motors. Motors 1 & 2 are connected to the first channel of L298N, whereas motors 3 & 4 are connected to the second channel of the motor driver.
IN1, IN2, IN3, and IN4 pins are connected to pin 9, 6, 5, 3 of Arduino Uno. Here, we have used the jumper between +5V and enables pins (EN1 &EN2). You can remove it and make the external connection, as shown in the below image.
After uploading the code, if your bot is not running in the right direction, then change the wiring of BO motors. Also, calibrate both IR sensors by varying their potentiometer.
Below GIF shows the working of the line follower robot. Here, we have drawn the path on a white-coloured surface with black colour tape.